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Cannabis Reproduction

Cannabis is predominantly dioecious, although many monoecious varieties have been described. Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread. Many populations have been described as sexually labile.As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar. Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production, where the female plants are preferred. Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate between licit crops of monoecious hemp and illicit dioecious drug crops.Mechanisms of sex determinationCannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. Many models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis.Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present. At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925. Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata’s interpretation, and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been discovered, particularly in plants. Dioecy is relatively uncommon in the plant kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious plant species have been determined to use the XY system. In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently.Since the 1920s, a number of sex determination models have been proposed for Cannabis. Ainsworth describes sex determination in the genus as using “an X/autosome dosage type”.Dense raceme of carpellate flowers typical of drug-type varieties of CannabisThe question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype. Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics). Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious “Kentucky” hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious “Kentucky” hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious “Kentucky” hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX. According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis had been published as of 1996. Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis (MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome. Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP. Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination.Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species. Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors. Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects. It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis using chemical treatment. A PCR-based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed.

Medical marijuana

Medical marijuanaThe medical uses of cannabisApr 27th 2006From The Economist print editionIF CANNABIS were unknown, and bioprospectors were suddenly to find it in some remote mountain crevice, its discovery would no doubt be hailed as a medical breakthrough. Scientists would praise its potential for treating everything from pain to cancer, and marvel at its rich pharmacopoeia—many of whose chemicals mimic vital molecules in the human body. In reality, cannabis has been with humanity for thousands of years and is considered by many governments (notably America’s) to be a dangerous drug without utility. Any suggestion that the plant might be medically useful is politically controversial, whatever the science says. It is in this context that, on April 20th, America’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a statement saying that smoked marijuana has no accepted medical use in treatment in the United States… In reality, cannabis has been with humanity for thousands of years and is considered by many governments (notably America’s) to be a dangerous drug without utility. Any suggestion that the plant might be medically useful is politically controversial, whatever the science says. It is in this context that, on April 20th, America’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a statement saying that smoked marijuana has no accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. The statement is curious in a number of ways. For one thing, it overlooks a report made in 1999 by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), part of the National Academy of Sciences, which came to a different conclusion. John Benson, a professor of medicine at the University of Nebraska who co-chaired the committee that drew up the report, found some sound scientific information that supports the medical use of cannabis for certain patients for short periods—even for smoked marijuana

Cannabis-related Schizophrenia Set To Rise, Say Researchers

Science Daily - Science Daily (press release) - Mar 26, 2007The research study matches historic trends in cannabis use and exposure from a national population survey against estimates of new occurrences of schizophrenia in three English cities (Nottingham, Bristol and the London Borough of Southwark). The researchers assess what might happen to schizophrenia cases if we assume a causal link between cannabis use and onset of psychotic symptoms, an association widely recognised by some psychiatrists and researchers and considered recently by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Exposure to cannabis grew fourfold over the thirty years to 2002, and its use among under-18s by 18-fold, say the researchers. If cannabis use causes schizophrenia, these increases in its use would lead to increases in overall schizophrenia incidence and prevalence of 29 per cent and 12 per cent respectively, between 1990 and 2010. (Incidence is defined as the frequency of new occurrences; and prevalence is the percentage of the population affected by the disease… The research study matches historic trends in cannabis use and exposure from a national population survey against estimates of new occurrences of schizophrenia in three English cities (Nottingham, Bristol and the London Borough of Southwark). The researchers assess what might happen to schizophrenia cases if we assume a causal link between cannabis use and onset of psychotic symptoms, an association widely recognised by some psychiatrists and researchers and considered recently by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Exposure to cannabis grew fourfold over the thirty years to 2002, and its use among under-18s by 18-fold, say the researchers. If cannabis use causes schizophrenia, these increases in its use would lead to increases in overall schizophrenia incidence and prevalence of 29 per cent and 12 per cent respectively, between 1990 and 2010. (Incidence is defined as the frequency of new occurrences; and prevalence is the percentage of the population affected by the disease. )Model projections suggest that if the association is confined to heavy cannabis users only, then approximately 10 per cent of schizophrenia cases may be due to cannabis by 2010. However, assuming an association between onset of the disease and both light and heavy users, then approximately one-quarter of new cases could be due to cannabis.

Cannabis bigger cancer risk than cigarettes - study

Reuters AlertNet - Jan 29, 2008Studies in the past have demonstrated that cannabis can cause cancer, but few have established a strong link between cannabis use and the actual incidence of lung cancer. In an article published in the European Respiratory Journal, the scientists said cannabis could be expected to harm the airways more than tobacco as its smoke contained twice the level of carcinogens, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, compared with tobacco cigarettes. The method of smoking also increases the risk, since joints are typically smoked without a proper filter and almost to the very tip, which increases the amount of smoke inhaled. The cannabis smoker inhales more deeply and for longer, facilitating the deposition of carcinogens in the airways. "Cannabis smokers end up with five times more carbon monoxide in their bloodstream (than tobacco smokers)," team leader Richard Beasley, at the Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, said in a telephone interview… In an article published in the European Respiratory Journal, the scientists said cannabis could be expected to harm the airways more than tobacco as its smoke contained twice the level of carcinogens, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, compared with tobacco cigarettes. The method of smoking also increases the risk, since joints are typically smoked without a proper filter and almost to the very tip, which increases the amount of smoke inhaled. The cannabis smoker inhales more deeply and for longer, facilitating the deposition of carcinogens in the airways. "Cannabis smokers end up with five times more carbon monoxide in their bloodstream (than tobacco smokers)," team leader Richard Beasley, at the Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, said in a telephone interview. "There are higher concentrations of carcinogens in cannabis smoke.

Addictions -Cannabidiol can alleviate them

The life of a problematic addict is almost entirely about his addiction. He often has more to do with fundraising and addiction satisfaction than someone who works full-time. People who come home from detoxification often do not have much to do and fall into a hole that almost automatically returns to relapse. It is not just this hole in which addicts fall after detoxification. Even during a month-long therapy, there are many relapses, although the affected have fixed structures and daily routine. Many have the craze for years to come. The physical withdrawal is therefore not the relapse problem. It is the addiction pressure in the head, which becomes overpowering in problematic phases of life or also in everyday stress situations. With the relapse, the physical dependence sets in again and holds the person concerned. Physical withdrawal is very uncomfortable and can be life threatening. That's why the path to detoxification is more meaningful. To reduce the addiction pressureThe lawmakers, many doctors and social workers agree that addicts should be moved by a therapy to a abstinent life. Because of this addictive pressure, this has virtually never been a prospect of success in the severely addicted. Even if the therapists live abstinently for months or even years, a stressful situation such as dismissal, a death, or a broken relationship will break everything down. The vast majority do not succeed after the therapy even a year, without resorting to the source substance or a substitute substance. These are the reasons why a substitution with drugs or replacement drugs could even be established. It was the obvious failure of the therapy goal of abstinence. The substitution agent should not be intoxicating if possible, but it should alleviate the addiction pressure. Even in stressful situations, the therapist should maintain his strength and manage his life without relapse. This is where cannabidiol, a cannabinoid of the hemp plant, becomes interesting. This cannabinoid has innumerable functions in the body, can soothe or heal many illnesses and at the same time suppress the addiction in the head. Cannabidiol does not make you physically dependent, it does not trigger high and it is almost impossible to accidentally take a lethal dose. For these reasons too, it is a very safe substance in comparison with other substitution agents, which in Germany is not even subject to BtM like many other substitution agents. Methadone or polamidone can only be prescribed by the substitution doctor with a BtM prescription or even be collected on a daily basis. CBD products can be purchased without prescription in pharmacies or online. The benefits of cannabidiolMethadone is the best known substitution drug for opiate dependencies. Many are not known to be addicted in a similar way to heroin. However, it does not trigger the intoxication. The substance has only a different effect, is administered to the substitute in pure quality and these are not pursued. So a more normal life is possible. However, methadone can be abused, severely dependent and an overdose can be fatal. This is different with cannabidiol. Taking a high dose here can make you tired. That's all, though. It does not make high. Normally you do not take such high doses. Furthermore, cannabidiol does not pollute the organs or kill brain cells. So it's a safe substance to grow old with. A normal life becomes possible without the first stress factor throwing you back. This will help CBD stay away from tobacco, alcohol, opiate, amphetamine, cocaine or any other active ingredient. Whether it really helps someone, but can not be said blanket. It always depends on the people and situations, whether CBD helps enough. Even if it only helps a little bit, the difference can already be very large - however, a regulated life away from problem consumers and the scene are always the prerequisite for getting out of a hard addiction. It can and may therefore also here no "promise of action" are given.An addiction can be sufficiently attenuated depending on the course with low or only from higher amounts. In no case will it be a mistake to start with 5 to 10 mg in the morning and at noon and 10 to 30 mg in the evening. If one reacts sensitively, these CBD quantities would not throw one off course. That would only be one or two very quiet days. If these amounts are insufficient, they can be increased and you can take a little more in acute stress situations. It is a bit like the patient has to find his dose, which he feels comfortable with and sufficiently dampens his addictive pressure. In case of uncertainties, a knowledgeable doctor should be consulted, who of course can not be replaced by this article. Cloth-bound and non-clothed addictionIn an addiction disease many think only of the substance-based addictions such as alcoholism or opiate addiction. A non-substance addiction would be an example of gambling addiction. But also sports, chatting, eating or anorexia and sex can addict. It is often spoken of behavioralism. For those affected, these actions activate the reward center in the brain, as do other alcohol or opiate. Thus, these acts act on those affected just like a drug. It can even be found mental withdrawal symptoms as in a drug withdrawal. Even in the case of a non-substance addiction, those affected fall into a hole after weaning or directly fall over in case of stress. They bring home and farm just like an alcoholic or junkie, without being able to control it. Even in the case of non-substance addiction, addiction pressure is the problem with which those affected relapse long after weaning, even at the slightest stress. Cannabidiol can also help to preserve the calm and serenity that life goes on with. Not everyone reacts the same wayAn addiction can annihilate entire existences, many will have high hopes for advertised "miracle solutions". However, it must never be forgotten that every person is different. Not everyone is addicted to the same substances or actions. Not everyone responds to the same substitution in the same way. For some, cannabidiol will help significantly in small doses, but not in others. That's why it would not be enough to test which quantities are well tolerated. It would also be over several weeks to check whether this amount also really dampens addiction. Third, it can be tested if less cannabidiol has a sufficient effect, since it costs money after all. If you were to get nervous in a stress situation, you just take something more, as it is done with other acute medications. useful informationThe big danger in breaking one addiction is the way to the next. It is not only the relapse, but also the change from one substance to another that is normal for severely dependent persons. However, those who have a strong consumption pattern will also have a strong consumption with the other substance. The addicts, who share their thoughts with each other, know that. Because of this, it has long been established that some addicts are switching to potent hemp instead of alcohol, opiates, or medications. This is at least less harmful with strong forms of consumption, it is more likely a more normal life possible. These insights that potent hemp may be the "lesser evil" of addiction have long been known. Accordingly, Dr. Edward A. Birch in the magazine "The Lancet" already reported in 1889 on treatment success with potent hemp in opiate addicts. At this time, the composition of the active ingredients in marijuana was different than in today's coffee shop grasses. These contain up to over 20% THC, but less than 0.2% CBD. Before the age of international drug bans, there was also cannabis or hashish derived from it with a high THC content. Here, however, was significantly more CBD included. Furthermore, there were many cannabis or hashish varieties in which the content of THC and CBD was almost balanced. CBD defuses the dangers of THC, which is very pure and in high concentrations can be unpleasant even for healthy consumers. Cannabidiol can generally be helpful in weaning substances and cushioning the effects of withdrawal. CBD can also reduce the addiction pressure when craving for potent cannabis. Many strong cannabis smokers have already helped enough without consuming tobacco, as nicotine stimulates one to consume constantly. Those who consume cannabis tobacco-free tend to consume more consciously and thus less frequently, less easily and less problematically.  Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Suchterkrankungen -Cannabidiol kann sie lindern. 25 oct, 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/suchterkrankungen-cannabidiol-kann-sie-lindern/ source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/  

Does cannabidiol have side effects?

For over two years now, products containing the cannabis drug cannabidiol, or CBD for short, are on the rise in the wellness industry. Many users cure small symptoms that accompany their everyday life, or use CBD for relaxation. Others go one step further and treat chronic diseases, in consultation with the doctor of course. In short, cannabidiol is in the process of conquering the healthcare industry. And hardly weeks go by, without new headlines over insights, on which illnesses the active substance which positive influences takes. It often plays a role that CBD as a substance and the medical devices that are produced with it, such as tinctures and oils, much better tolerated than the chemical drugs that are replaced by cannabidiol in whole or in part. But is CBD really free of side effects? Are there no incompatibilities? How safe is the use of CBD?So far, there is no evidence of an overdose of cannabidiol that poses any serious health risks and that, although there is currently a large body of studies on CBD, also on high dose applications. In contrast to many conventional medicines, CBD is also very well suited for long-term use, as even the consumption over a longer period until date revealed no negative side effects. All in all, CBD is so safe to use that you can not go wrong. Even the WHO certifies that the cannabis drug is safe and has many health benefits. In addition, CBD is not recognized as psychoactive or addictive. Minor side effects of CBDCannabidiol is not one hundred percent free of side effects, although for a therapeutic use, it is usually much less of an evil to the patient than the chemical alternatives that are available to him. Since an effect of cannabidiol is physical relaxation, at high doses naturally a state of drowsiness can be the result. Here, CBD has a peculiarity, as low doses may be more activating and may increase alertness, while high doses cause calming effects. In some patients, diarrhea and changes in eating habits were noted as negative side effects. Longer-term intake may therefore result in a reduction in body weight. This usually affects high-dose revenue, or poor quality of the oils. Mutual interactions of CBDThe knowledge of interactions is much worse than the side effects of CBD alone. Since cannabidiol is only finding its way into modern medicine, it will need to be further investigated in the coming years. Recently, for example, warned against the parallel intake of CBD with certain thrombosis prophylactic drugs, which are administered to patients, among other things, some craniocerebral trauma, since the cannabidiol may enhance the anticoagulant effect of the preparations, and in some patients by internal Bleeding caused. Therefore, if you are interested in treatment with CBD, it is also advisable to consult the doctor, if possible a knowledgeable, if you take other medicines. Source: KLAUS GLASMANN, Dieter. Hat Cannabidiol Nebenwirkungen?, 30 oct, 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/hat-cannabidiol-nebenwirkungen/ source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/  

Study demonstrates potential of CBD in chronic pain

Following the legalization of cannabis in Canada in October, a team of scientists from the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and McGill University in Montreal delivered encouraging news for chronic pain patients by evaluating the effective dose of cannabidiol marijuana plant extract (CBD) for safe pain relief without the psychoactive effects of THC. The results of their study were published in the journal PAIN (The Journal of the International Association for the Study of Pain). CBD is almost free of side effectsCannabis Indica and Sativa are the two most important and best-known cannabis strains, as they produce the pharmacological agents tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The team of dr. Gabriella Gobbi showed that CBD does not act like THC on the CB1 cannabinoid receptors, but by binding to certain receptors that are involved in symptoms such as anxiety (serotonin 5-HT1A) and pain (vanilloid TRPV1). The researchers were able to find out the exact dosage of CBD that has analgesic and anxiolytic properties without the risk of mental impairment usually caused by THC. However, this dose varies with a few individual factors such as age, weight, physical condition, and some other things. Therefore, it is always advisable to discuss a CBD treatment with a medical purpose always with a doctor, and also to adjust the dosage of CBD preparations with him. Low dosage over a longer periodStudies on chronic pain have found that low doses of CBD administered regularly over a period of at least seven days relieve both pain and anxiety, two symptoms often associated with neuropathic or chronic disease. The lead author of the study, dr. Gobbi, a researcher in the Brain Repair and Integrative Neuroscience (BRaIN) program of the MUHC Research Institute, sees this as progress for the evidence-based use of cannabis in medicine, with CBD being a safe alternative to THC and opioids in chronic pain such as back pain, Sciatica, diabetes, cancer and post-traumatic disorders. Since it is almost impossible to take an overdose that could become a hazard or a health hazard, it can be considered extremely safe and tolerable. More clinical trials requiredThe results illustrate the mechanism of action of CBD and show that it can be used as a drug without the side effects that THC-containing drugs can cause. Despite the widespread use of CBD, there are few robust clinical trials on its medicinal properties. Dr. Gobbi notes that while there are some data showing that CBD provides pain relief to humans, more meaningful clinical trials are needed to ensure the correct form and dose of CBD treatment for many diseases. Source: GLASMANN, Dieter Klaus. Studie weist Potential von CBD bei chronischen Schmerzen nach. 1 [online] 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/studie-weist-potential-von-cbd-bei-chronischen-schmerzen-nach/ source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD in Headache - Can Cannabidiol Help with Migraine?

Around 54 million Germans suffer phases of headache at some point in their lives. With a share of 90 percent, tension headaches and migraines are most common. Although over-the-counter analgesics are usually the first attempt at therapy, they also bring with them unpleasant side effects. Whether CBD oil can serve as an alternative or a supplement here is explained below: What types of headaches are there?Linguistically, we make few differences between different types of headaches - but medically there are clear classifications. First of all, experts distinguish between primary headache, which stands alone as a symptom, and secondary headache, which is a symptom of comorbidities. Common types of headaches are the following: Tension headache: The pain does not pulsate, but pushes and cramps the sides of the head. Often the pain occurs in symmetrical patterns. Tension headaches are not associated with nausea and vomiting.Migraine: Here the pain occurs unilaterally and pulsates. Physical activity aggravates the symptoms. Those affected also suffer from sensitivity to light and noise, nausea and vomiting.Cluster headache: Here, the pain attacks occur up to 8 times a day in a duration of 15 minutes to 3 hours. Those affected suffer from unilateral pain, usually in the eye area, and have the urge to move. Reddened, watery eyes and a runny or stuffy nose are further side effects.CBD in migraine - many sufferers recommend cannabidiolEspecially on the Internet, there are several reports from migraine sufferers who report that CBD significantly improved their quality of life. In contrast, the picture is not so clear in research: Although some study results suggest that medical cannabis could alleviate migraine, the studies for CBD as a single preparation are lacking. In 2016, however, some scientists put forward a thesis that wants to explain not only the pain in migraine, but also the symptoms of fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome. According to them, all symptoms could be due to a lack of body-produced cannabinoids (endocannabinoids). The syndrome is therefore called chronic cannabinoid deficiency (CED = Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome).  The supply of herbal cannabinoids from the outside, especially CBD, could reduce the symptoms of migraine, according to the researchers. Including all studies to date indicates that cannabinoids, especially THC and CBD, have beneficial effects in the treatment of pain. In particular, this also applies to migraine and other types of headache.  For tension-type headaches, CBD may also be suitable for the causes. Because these headaches often result from the tension of the neck or masticatory muscles. These muscles harden when we work many hours a day in front of the computer and also with people who grind their teeth at night. Here, stress can be a triggering factor. Relaxation techniques, sports as well as natural dietary supplements such as CBD are suitable as preventative measures. The fact that cannabidiol can reduce anxiety and stress, especially in public situations, proved the results of scientific studies several times.  What are the benefits of CBD as a dietary supplement?Many headache sufferers often resort to over-the-counter analgesics such as acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen. In particular, the latter carries the risk of stomach pain and in the worst case even stomach bleeding. Therefore, medics usually prescribe the analgesic only in concert with a gastric acid blocker (e.g., omeprazole). Migraine sufferers who prescribe painkillers themselves, however, often do not think of the possible side effects. CBD is in its form as a dietary supplement, however, free of side effects. His tolerated maximum dose is, according to scientific experiments, well beyond the dosage recommendations of the manufacturers. Who wants to try as a headache patient to increase his well-being with CBD, must therefore not worry about possible risks and side effects. With one exception: If you take medications prescribed by the doctor due to migraine or other underlying conditions, you should ask a physician for possible interactions with CBD. Source: CBD bei Kopfschmerzen – kann Cannabidiol bei Migräne helfen? 1 [online]. Jun 3, 2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/kann-cannabidiol-bei-migrane-helfen source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/  

CBD for horses - does cannabidiol increase the health of four-legged friends?

Anyone with a pet is worried about their physical well-being on a daily basis. This is especially true for riders and horse owners, who often perform together with their four-legged partner sporting achievements. How CBD products such as CBD oil can increase the well-being of your horse, you will find out below: Which hemp products are horse owners already using?The feeding of hemp products is quite common in the horse scene. Especially popular is cold-pressed hempseed oil, which provides valuable unsaturated fatty acids. Omega 3, Omega 6 and gamma-linolenic acid in the oil mainly exert anti-inflammatory effects and are administered against skin diseases and joint problems. In addition, horse owners have the opportunity to offer her four-legged hemp seeds, hemp leaf powder or hemp pellets as supplementary feed. What advantages does CBD offer?CBD products such as oil or cream have a decisive advantage over hemp seed and hemp seed oil: if they are based on a full-spectrum extract, they contain all cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids of the hemp plant, whereas these only appear in traces in the seed and in the hemp seed oil. However, cannabinoids such as CBD exert strong effects on the immune system of mammals. Horses also have an endocannabinoid system, to whose receptors CBD can bind. Thus, as a single therapy or as a supplement to cold-pressed hemp seed oil, it can alleviate a variety of symptoms typical of horses. Veterinarians use CBD for the treatment of equine diseases only sporadically so far - positive testimonials from dedicated horse owners already exist in large numbers: With which complaints can CBD horses help?Experts advise on CBD products in the following complaints Respiratory diseasesEczema (such as summer eczema) and allergiesOsteoarthritis and joint complaintsinflammatory diseasesSusceptibility to colicdiarrheaMuscular tensionFor better coat health and hoof growthand more  Especially for horses, there are no scientific studies to date that demonstrate the effects of CBD. In dogs, rats, chickens and last but not least in humans, cannabidiol has often demonstrated its ability to regulate inflammatory processes and immune reactions. For example, scientists in rats with arthritis were able to show that the administration of CBD markedly reduced the release of pro-inflammatory signaling substances in the joint fluid. Animals that had CBD balm on the arthritic joints or were given CBD orally showed reduced tenderness and increased mobility after a few days. Scientists also observed similarly positive results in dogs suffering from osteoarthritis who received CBD preparations.  In addition to supporting the joints, CBD can, according to the owners' reports, especially help horses with typical ailments: Many owners of ponies and horses with summer eczema try many therapeutics without success. CBD as a dietary supplement seems to act in many cases acutely and preventively against eczema. Muscle tension can also be eased with CBD Balm. Many horse owners believe not least that cannabidiol can reduce the nervousness and stress of the animals and helps to a more balanced nature. Also in horses that suffer from headshaking syndrome, CBD may bring some improvement. How do I administer CBD to my horse?As the experiments so far show, both CBD balm and CBD oil make sense for horses. While CBD balm can be applied directly to inflamed skin or stressed joints, simply mix CBD oil into your horse's food or sprinkle it on a special treat. Source: CBD für Pferde – steigert Cannabidiol die Gesundheit der Vierbeiner?Mai 10, 2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-fuer-pferde source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD in atopic dermatitis

Neurodermatitis sets in from the point where the epidermal skin barrier is broken by injury or irritation. Allergens are more common and cause defense reactions. These have inflammatory and itchy effects, further scratching the epidermal skin barrier and allowing even more allergens to invade. The treatment aims to soothe the skin so that the epidermal skin barrier to the body works as well as possible. Since atopic eczema is intensified by many factors, the patient or his parents should pay attention to many details. CBD, hempseed oil or, if possible, THC in skin care creams are just a few aspects of the treatment. Since other cannabinoids or even terpenes and flavonoids may have soothing effects, as far as possible even a full extract of the cannabis flowers should be selected as an ingredient for the skin cream. Why can CBD help with atopic dermatitis?Cannabidiol is a cannabinoid, which is frequently found in higher concentrations in the cannabis plant and has a very wide range of uses. It can have a calming and sleep-inducing effect. However, it also superficially reduces the misguided immune system, which lessens the response to invading allergens. But also the antibacterial effect and the slowed down bacterial growth can significantly help the patient, if the rugged skin is not affected by further problems. CBC and CBG can also help fight fungal infections should they find their skin reddened and scratched. All this makes CBD an interesting ingredient in skincare creams for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. It could be purchased as an extract on the web to add to a well-considered skin care cream. But it can also be purchased directly a CBD cream for skin treatment. Cannabidiol, like tetrahydrocannabinol, can significantly help with various skin conditions. THC relieves the pain, but has only a regional effect on the external application without causing a high. Follow several approachesAtopic dermatitis is a disease that still leaves many puzzles. Thus, the individual "stress factors" on different patients can have different influence. A diet shift away from saccharified treats to more original and healthier ingredients can be an important treatment step. Also, adding a good vitamin B complex can help. It can also be helpful to mix the hemp seed oil not only under the creams or to use directly hemp seed oil creams. This edible oil or the hemp seeds that contain it should also be part of the daily diet. Hemp seed oil has a very good ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids, only then it can optimally help the skin or the body. The hemp seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid as omega 3 fatty acid with up to approx. 29% of the fatty acids. The linoleic acid as omega 6 fatty acid is 50 to 60%, the oleic acid as omega 9 fatty acid in 10 to 15%. These are very valuable, polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, which, however, are optimal for the body only in the right proportion to each other due to the partly opposite effect. For humans, a ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids of 2 to 5 to 1 is very good. This ratio is usually not achieved in the usual diet, already a teaspoon of hemp seed oil or a tablespoon of hemp seed can help the diet, more does not hurt. Furthermore, it may be attempted to use more pleasant textile fabrics and furniture or to use a room air filter with UVC and water purification. Where there are fewer allergens, the defense response may be lower. With a little luck you will grow out of eczema. However, atopic eczema should not be underestimated, as it occurs four to six times more frequently in many industrialized countries than it did 80 years ago. This may not be the peak before the frequency returns to normal. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. CBD bei Neurodermitis. 30 Apr 2018,. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/cbd-bei-neurodermitis Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

Restless Legs Syndrome and CBD - Promising?

If you are a layman to deal with the RLS, the so-called restless legs syndrome (translated: disease of restless legs), then you quickly realize how little known this disease is. Since the term seems to paint a very clear picture of the symptomatology to the one who translates the English term, the outsider, who does not suffer from it, has no reason to look beyond the facade of the simple name. As a rule, the illness means to the patient that he usually has to deal with his symptoms in phases in which the body usually comes to rest. Tugging, tingling, tearing in the legs, and less commonly in other parts of the body, are the conditions often expressed by patients, but they can be very different. Often, one also hears that describing the perceived misperceptions is almost impossible due to lack of vocabulary. The subjective pain sensations are often accompanied by twitching in the limbs and by a strong urge to move. Causes of RLS are not clearly established, a disorder in dopamine metabolism, which causes erroneous transfers of nerve signals, is considered likely. A large number of patients reported that they can relieve the symptoms in the short term by exercise. However, this alone is not the solution, because the long-term problem of RLS lies in sleep, more precisely in the sleep disturbed by the illness. Since the body is disturbed by the discomfort and sudden movements in the necessary periods of rest, the recovery remains on the track, the healthy sleep allows the man. Even in other supposed relaxation situations, the RLS patient is plagued by his symptoms, causing a general state of exhaustion that causes problems in virtually all areas of life. Sometimes RLS is treated with dopamine supplements, opioids and antiepileptic drugs, but those who read the leaflet are quickly tempted to live with the symptoms rather than risking the severe side effects. In epilepsy and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, some success has already been achieved with the medication with CBD, and thus suggests that the anticonvulsant and relaxing agent of hemp is also eligible for the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Studies on cannabis treatment of RLS are scarce so far, however, the effectiveness in sleep disorders as well as muscle cramps and pain has already been proven, so that a success in the "restless legs" is very likely. Also, the treatment success in ADHD, which incidentally are actually diagnosed with actual RLS patients, since the clinical pictures are at least partially similar, justify a success expectation for the use of cannabis, especially of CBD flowers or preparations, even for the Restless Legs syndrome. In all likelihood, most cannabis users would also find that their hemp has a calming, relaxing, and sleep-inducing effect, at least for most varieties, and so most readers of this article are sure that cannabis can certainly help alleviate or support the relief of most restless ailments if you just let people do it. And with the now improved availability of CBD products, the lack of information on the effectiveness of CBD in RLS will be resolved in the near future. Source: GLASMANN, Dieter Klaus. Restless Legs Syndrom und CBD – Vielversprechend? 1 [online] 23 Apr 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/restless-legs-syndrom-und-cbd-vielversprechend/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

CBD effective against migraine

Migraine symptoms and why CBD helps against itMigraine is a Greek word meaning "half skull" - presumably because the other half is disabled by severe pain. Around seven percent of men and 13 percent of women suffer from it. In most cases, migraine occurs more frequently between the ages of 25 and 35, and especially among women. But children and the elderly are not necessarily spared. Frequently, the headache is accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, loss of appetite, sensitivity to light and noise intolerance. Some migraine sufferers also suffer from a seizure before a so-called aura. This means, for example, they have symptoms of paralysis, visual disturbances or other perceptual disorders. In the fight against some of the symptoms CBD has already proven to be an effective remedy. The cannabinoid - as studies and studies have so far revealed - has an analgesic effect. Anandamide is an endocannabinoid, a cannabinoid that the body produces itself. It binds to the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 as well as to the cannabinoid receptor CB1, where it immediately counteracts pain. The administration of CBD now ensures that the anandamide concentration in the human organism does not decrease or even rise so quickly. By keeping the anandamide level up, CBD is directly involved in pain relief. In addition, CBD is known to help against nausea. CBD calms the stomach, suppressing nausea and vomiting. In general, it helps the gastrointestinal tract to regulate its functions and thus to get digestion problems under control. However, it is not very advisable to use cannabidiol for loss of appetite, which is common in migraines, because CBD suppresses appetite according to the state of the art. Another ingredient of the cannabis plant would be of greater benefit here: THC stimulates the appetite. Regarding the intraocular pressure CBD also affects. Perhaps this benefit could have a positive effect on the aura that sometimes precedes a migraine attack. The cannabinoid generally has a balancing effect on the body, relaxes and balances it. Already in advance, the chances of a milder or even absent migraine attack are good if the person concerned regularly takes CBD products. CBD combats migraine causesWhy some people suffer from migraine attacks is not really clear. However, it is clear that there are certain triggers, called triggers, that can cause a seizure. As for the cause of migraine, science currently assumes that brain metabolism is out of balance. In particular, the messengers serotonin, noradrenaline and CGRP (calcitoinin gene-related peptides) are in imbalance. This imbalance has an influence on the sensation of pain in the blood vessels, which are apparently inflamed in the brain of migraine sufferers. This creates the typical headache. Migraine symptoms and why CBD helps against itMigraine is a Greek word meaning "half skull" - presumably because the other half is disabled by severe pain. Around seven percent of men and 13 percent of women suffer from it. In most cases, migraine occurs more often between the ages of 25 and 35, and especially among women. But children and the elderly are not necessarily spared. Frequently, the headache is characterized by symptoms such as nausea, loss of appetite, sensitivity to light and noise intolerance. Some migraine sufferers also suffer from a seizure before a so-called aura. This means, for example, they have symptoms of paralysis, visual disturbances or other perceptual disorders. CBD has already proven to be effective remedy. The cannabinoid - as studies and studies have so far revealed - has an analgesic effect. Anandamide is an endocannabinoid, a cannabinoid that the body itself. It binds to the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 as well as to the cannabinoid receptor CB1, where it immediately counteracts pain. The administration of CBD now ensures that the anandamide concentration in the human organism does not decrease or even rise so quickly. By keeping the anandamide level up, CBD is directly involved in pain relief. In addition, CBD is known to help against nausea. CBD calms the stomach, suppressing nausea and vomiting. In general, it helps the gastrointestinal tract to regulate its functions and thus to get digestion problems under control. However, it is not very advisable to use cannabidiol for loss of appetite, which is common in migraines, because CBD suppresses appetite according to the state of the art. Another ingredient of the cannabis plant: THC stimulates the appetite. Regarding the intraocular pressure CBD so affects. Perhaps this benefit could have a positive effect on the aura that sometimes precedes a migraine attack. The cannabinoid has a balancing effect on the body, relaxes and balances it. Already in advance, the chances of a mild or even absentee attack are good. CBD combats migraine causesWhy some people suffer from migraine attacks is not really clear. However, it is clear that there are certain triggers, called triggers, that can cause a seizure. As for the cause of migraine, science is currently in the brain metabolism is out of balance. In particular, the messengers serotonin, noradrenaline and CGRP (calcitoinin gene-related peptides) are in imbalance. This imbalance has an influence on the sensation of pain in the blood vessels, which are apparently inflamed in the brain of migraine sufferers. This creates the typical headache. Source: SOMMER, Kathrin. CBD effective against migraine. 1 [online].22 Apr 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/cbd-wirksam-gegen-migraene/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/