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Cannabis Reproduction

Cannabis is predominantly dioecious, although many monoecious varieties have been described. Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread. Many populations have been described as sexually labile.As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar. Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production, where the female plants are preferred. Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate between licit crops of monoecious hemp and illicit dioecious drug crops.Mechanisms of sex determinationCannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. Many models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis.Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present. At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925. Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata’s interpretation, and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been discovered, particularly in plants. Dioecy is relatively uncommon in the plant kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious plant species have been determined to use the XY system. In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently.Since the 1920s, a number of sex determination models have been proposed for Cannabis. Ainsworth describes sex determination in the genus as using “an X/autosome dosage type”.Dense raceme of carpellate flowers typical of drug-type varieties of CannabisThe question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype. Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics). Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious “Kentucky” hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious “Kentucky” hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious “Kentucky” hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX. According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis had been published as of 1996. Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis (MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome. Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP. Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination.Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species. Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors. Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects. It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis using chemical treatment. A PCR-based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed.

How anyone can benefit from CBD

When talking about CBD, it quickly indicates the manifold medical potential. The use of cannabidiol is by no means limited to people with health problems. Although the cannabinoid has a promising medicinal effect and can significantly increase the well-being, CBD is also excellent for "healthy people". CBD has properties for our body and entire organism that everyone can benefit from. CBD can relieve stress and anxietyBy definition, stress is "a stimulus that is unusually high and can unbalance you, both physically and mentally, and cause damage to your health." Although stress is not automatically a bad thing, it is now considered beneficial for many illnesses and triggers various psychosomatic problems. Nonetheless, feeling about possible stressors is a very individual matter. Whatever the trigger for stress, taking CBD oil can be helpful in creating a healthy mind. Home »Cannabis in Medicine» Cannabinoids »CBD in Medicine» How Anyone Can Benefit From CBDBy: Christian Boedefeld in CBD in Medicine November 6, 2018 0 6,562 views How anyone can benefit from CBDThere are more and more large-scale studies on the medical effect of CBD with meaningful results. The World Health Organization WHO has declared cannabidiol harmless and in many countries the use of CBD as a dietary supplement is legal. When talking about CBD, it quickly indicates the manifold medical potential. The use of cannabidiol is by no means limited to people with health problems. Although the cannabinoid has a promising medicinal effect and can significantly increase the well-being, CBD is also excellent for "healthy people". CBD has properties for our body and entire organism that everyone can benefit from. CBD can relieve stress and anxietyBy definition, stress is "a stimulus that is unusually high and can unbalance you, both physically and mentally, and cause damage to your health." Although stress is not automatically a bad thing, it is now considered beneficial for many illnesses and triggers various psychosomatic problems. Nonetheless, feeling about possible stressors is a very individual matter. Whatever the trigger for stress, taking CBD oil can be helpful in creating a healthy mind. Regular intake can raise awareness of a healthy lifestyle and help focus on how nutrient-rich and healthy the body is. This not only affects our diet, but also what we feed our minds with. Feeling stressed can lead to anxiety as a result. The calming effect of taking cannabidiol can be a breather in which time to calm down. It clears the mind for ideas to solve the problem, rather than panicking at the thought of it. CBD can relieve chronic painBy acting on our endocannabinoid system, which plays a crucial role in our sense of pain, cannabidiol has a promising potential for relieving pain. The science not only provides a number of evidence for the analgesic effect. Reports indicate that pain can also be prevented. Thanks to the added fatty acids, vitamins and trace elements in CBD oil, the dietary supplement can boost our immune system and make a vital contribution to promoting overall wellbeing. Particularly promising is the use of cannabidiol in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. CBD can improve memory and concentration abilityMany of the CB1 receptors of our endogenous cannabinoid system are found in our brains and are important for our memory. Added to this are the unsaturated fatty acids contained in CBD oil, such as omega-3. They play a crucial role in the functions of the brain and nerve cells. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory. CBD can restore balanceThat does not sound very spectacular at first. However, when we feel unbalanced, it can have a significant impact on our everyday lives. One of CBD's tasks is the recovery of this homeostasis, which starts in the mind. CBD can improve sleepWhen stress and feelings of anxiety are relieved, the mind is free for other thoughts and we can sleep peacefully at night. Stress increases the heartbeat and through constant mental games we often find it not only at night no peace. Insufficient sleep can make you lethargic and frustrated and sabotage a well-regulated routine. The calming effect of CBD can make it easier to fall asleep and thus make an important contribution to regeneration. In addition, the intake can become a ritual for the conclusion of the day. CBD can reduce inflammation and improve the immune systemCannabidiol has certain anti-inflammatory properties that can help our body fight inflammation. In addition, inflammation can be excellently prevented. This mechanism is crucial, especially when used in the context of inflammatory diseases. Another important role for our cells is the chlorophyll contained in CBD oil. It supports regeneration and strengthens the defense against hazardous substances. In addition, studies provide evidence that CBD slows down the breakdown of bone tissue and promotes firmness and growth. For the best possible effect, regular intake is important. Our endocannabinoid system is important for many functions and physiological regulatory mechanisms of our body. If this homeostasis is disturbed, it can have various effects. After all, our endogenous cannabinoid system is responsible, among other things, for the immune system, the regulation of pain and inflammation or our memory. Regular intake of CBD oil, for example, helps to protect or restore this balance. It is difficult to provide a dosage recommendation in this regard. The effect of substances is a very individual thing that varies from person to person. Using the example of a CBD oil with an active substance concentration of 5%, it makes the most sense to approach the respective individual optimal dose in small steps. It is best to start with one drop in the morning, at noon and in the evening and observe the effect. Source: BOEDEFELD, Christian. Wie jedermann von CBD profitieren kann. 6 Nov, 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/wie-jedermann-von-cbd-profitieren-kann/ source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD as an anti-aging agent - does cannabidiol work against wrinkles?

young people in their 20s barely behind. But when the first fine lines of laughter or a few gray hairs appear, it motivates many to do more for their bodies. After all, anti-wrinkle creams today are not just reduced to anti-wrinkle creams, they also describe a lifestyle: strengthening and nourishing the body so that it stays fit into old age. Can CBD help slow down the biological clock? What anti-aging potential does cannabidiol have? Why is our skin aging?Our skin is exposed to many burdens throughout life. Heating air dries it up in winter, sunburns strain it in the summer. In addition, our epidermis experiences the immediate consequences of our lifestyle. Stress, smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy diets create free radicals in the body that attack the skin cells. If they are sustainably damaged, wrinkles dig deeper and the elasticity of the skin subsides. Because of this, many anti-aging products advertise their anti-oxidant ingredients. They are designed to neutralize free radicals and protect skin cells from damage. CBD has also been shown to have high antioxidant potential.  CBD could normalize the skin functionsCannabidiol has shown further effects on the cells of the skin in scientific experiments. On the one hand CBD regulated the function of the sebaceous glands, on the other hand it controlled the horn-forming cells. The latter are overly active in inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. While these two observations do not suggest anti-aging effects of CBD, they may relieve additional stress that strains the skin in parallel with increasing age. CBD cream or CBD oil for the skin?Cannabidiol is scientifically proven to be well absorbed through the skin. And that's even 10 times more effective than its psychoactive counterpart THC. But for your skin to benefit from CBD, you do not necessarily have to apply cream. After all, substances that have an anti-inflammatory effect and moisturize the skin also work if you take them orally. This was also demonstrated by a study in which women measurably improved the condition of their skin by taking capsules of gamma-linolenic acid gamma-linolenic acid is also a cannabis ingredient. It is abundant in hemp oil. Ideally, you provide your body with anti-inflammatory ingredients from within and without. In addition to cannabidiol, a CBD cream has the additional advantage that it prevents your skin from losing too much moisture due to fatty components such as shea butter or mango butter. In addition, if the cream contains a CBD full spectrum extract, it will provide cannabidiol, cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenes in addition to cannabidiol. These ingredients also protect the skin from oxidative stress. In addition to the external application, CBD honey is a sweet and, above all, tasty alternative. Can CBD help with further signs of age?Anti-aging today not only covers the skin, but also bones, joints, muscles and internal organs. Here, especially with the age of the complaints in the musculoskeletal system, for example, wear and tear on the joints. To stay as mobile as in recent years, many people with arthritis resort to analgesics, so-called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. But what relieves the pain brings various side effects. Just the usual, over-the-counter painkillers attack the stomach lining. CBD has anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic propertiesCBD may help maintain joint health or reduce degenerative rheumatism. At least in mice, scientists could treat arthritis by administering CBD to experimental animals. The researchers were able to measure how CBD in the synovial fluid of experimental animals reduced inflammatory signaling. These signaling substances activate the immune system in arthritis and cause inflammation. The conclusion: CBD has anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic potential. CBD globules are particularly suitable because they are easy to dose and take. In the described experiment, the animals got CBD with the food - but even the application on the skin seems to be good for rheumatic joints: In the experiment, mice that received a CBD ointment could already run better after a few days and showed less signs of pain.  Source: CBD als Anti-Aging-Mittel – wirkt Cannabidiol gegen Falten? 1 [online], Jul 17, 2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-als-anti-aging-mittel source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD for horses - does cannabidiol increase the health of four-legged friends?

Anyone with a pet is worried about their physical well-being on a daily basis. This is especially true for riders and horse owners, who often perform together with their four-legged partner sporting achievements. How CBD products such as CBD oil can increase the well-being of your horse, you will find out below: Which hemp products are horse owners already using?The feeding of hemp products is quite common in the horse scene. Especially popular is cold-pressed hempseed oil, which provides valuable unsaturated fatty acids. Omega 3, Omega 6 and gamma-linolenic acid in the oil mainly exert anti-inflammatory effects and are administered against skin diseases and joint problems. In addition, horse owners have the opportunity to offer her four-legged hemp seeds, hemp leaf powder or hemp pellets as supplementary feed. What advantages does CBD offer?CBD products such as oil or cream have a decisive advantage over hemp seed and hemp seed oil: if they are based on a full-spectrum extract, they contain all cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids of the hemp plant, whereas these only appear in traces in the seed and in the hemp seed oil. However, cannabinoids such as CBD exert strong effects on the immune system of mammals. Horses also have an endocannabinoid system, to whose receptors CBD can bind. Thus, as a single therapy or as a supplement to cold-pressed hemp seed oil, it can alleviate a variety of symptoms typical of horses. Veterinarians use CBD for the treatment of equine diseases only sporadically so far - positive testimonials from dedicated horse owners already exist in large numbers: With which complaints can CBD horses help?Experts advise on CBD products in the following complaints Respiratory diseasesEczema (such as summer eczema) and allergiesOsteoarthritis and joint complaintsinflammatory diseasesSusceptibility to colicdiarrheaMuscular tensionFor better coat health and hoof growthand more  Especially for horses, there are no scientific studies to date that demonstrate the effects of CBD. In dogs, rats, chickens and last but not least in humans, cannabidiol has often demonstrated its ability to regulate inflammatory processes and immune reactions. For example, scientists in rats with arthritis were able to show that the administration of CBD markedly reduced the release of pro-inflammatory signaling substances in the joint fluid. Animals that had CBD balm on the arthritic joints or were given CBD orally showed reduced tenderness and increased mobility after a few days. Scientists also observed similarly positive results in dogs suffering from osteoarthritis who received CBD preparations.  In addition to supporting the joints, CBD can, according to the owners' reports, especially help horses with typical ailments: Many owners of ponies and horses with summer eczema try many therapeutics without success. CBD as a dietary supplement seems to act in many cases acutely and preventively against eczema. Muscle tension can also be eased with CBD Balm. Many horse owners believe not least that cannabidiol can reduce the nervousness and stress of the animals and helps to a more balanced nature. Also in horses that suffer from headshaking syndrome, CBD may bring some improvement. How do I administer CBD to my horse?As the experiments so far show, both CBD balm and CBD oil make sense for horses. While CBD balm can be applied directly to inflamed skin or stressed joints, simply mix CBD oil into your horse's food or sprinkle it on a special treat. Source: CBD für Pferde – steigert Cannabidiol die Gesundheit der Vierbeiner?Mai 10, 2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-fuer-pferde source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD in atopic dermatitis

Neurodermatitis sets in from the point where the epidermal skin barrier is broken by injury or irritation. Allergens are more common and cause defense reactions. These have inflammatory and itchy effects, further scratching the epidermal skin barrier and allowing even more allergens to invade. The treatment aims to soothe the skin so that the epidermal skin barrier to the body works as well as possible. Since atopic eczema is intensified by many factors, the patient or his parents should pay attention to many details. CBD, hempseed oil or, if possible, THC in skin care creams are just a few aspects of the treatment. Since other cannabinoids or even terpenes and flavonoids may have soothing effects, as far as possible even a full extract of the cannabis flowers should be selected as an ingredient for the skin cream. Why can CBD help with atopic dermatitis?Cannabidiol is a cannabinoid, which is frequently found in higher concentrations in the cannabis plant and has a very wide range of uses. It can have a calming and sleep-inducing effect. However, it also superficially reduces the misguided immune system, which lessens the response to invading allergens. But also the antibacterial effect and the slowed down bacterial growth can significantly help the patient, if the rugged skin is not affected by further problems. CBC and CBG can also help fight fungal infections should they find their skin reddened and scratched. All this makes CBD an interesting ingredient in skincare creams for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. It could be purchased as an extract on the web to add to a well-considered skin care cream. But it can also be purchased directly a CBD cream for skin treatment. Cannabidiol, like tetrahydrocannabinol, can significantly help with various skin conditions. THC relieves the pain, but has only a regional effect on the external application without causing a high. Follow several approachesAtopic dermatitis is a disease that still leaves many puzzles. Thus, the individual "stress factors" on different patients can have different influence. A diet shift away from saccharified treats to more original and healthier ingredients can be an important treatment step. Also, adding a good vitamin B complex can help. It can also be helpful to mix the hemp seed oil not only under the creams or to use directly hemp seed oil creams. This edible oil or the hemp seeds that contain it should also be part of the daily diet. Hemp seed oil has a very good ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids, only then it can optimally help the skin or the body. The hemp seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid as omega 3 fatty acid with up to approx. 29% of the fatty acids. The linoleic acid as omega 6 fatty acid is 50 to 60%, the oleic acid as omega 9 fatty acid in 10 to 15%. These are very valuable, polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, which, however, are optimal for the body only in the right proportion to each other due to the partly opposite effect. For humans, a ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids of 2 to 5 to 1 is very good. This ratio is usually not achieved in the usual diet, already a teaspoon of hemp seed oil or a tablespoon of hemp seed can help the diet, more does not hurt. Furthermore, it may be attempted to use more pleasant textile fabrics and furniture or to use a room air filter with UVC and water purification. Where there are fewer allergens, the defense response may be lower. With a little luck you will grow out of eczema. However, atopic eczema should not be underestimated, as it occurs four to six times more frequently in many industrialized countries than it did 80 years ago. This may not be the peak before the frequency returns to normal. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. CBD bei Neurodermitis. 30 Apr 2018,. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/cbd-bei-neurodermitis Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/